For this reason, the steep rise in literacy rates--by 1990 the literacy rate for men had risen to 73 percent and that for women to 48 percent--must be seen as an achievement.
Students who wished to pursue their studies beyond the elementary level could attend an informal network of scholarly lectures (), hadith, literature, rhetoric, and sometimes arithmetic and history.
The variation of interpretation often leads to controversy.
For example, Sheikh Ahmad Qassim Al-Ghamdi, chief of the Mecca region's mutaween (religious police), has said prohibiting ikhtilat (gender mixing) has no basis in Sharia.
Through 2016 the Saudi Arabia-led coalition continued an aerial campaign against Houthi forces in Yemen that included numerous unlawful airstrikes that killed and injured thousands of civilians.
Saudi authorities also continued their arbitrary arrests, trials, and convictions of peaceful dissidents.
Saudi Arabia regularly scores near the bottom on global gender equality rankings.
The World Economic Forum's 2016 Global Gender Gap report put it at 141 out of 145 countries, the Independent reported.
Under this system, adult women must obtain permission from a male guardian—usually a husband, father, brother, or son—to travel, marry, or exit prison.In Saudi culture, the Sharia is interpreted according to a strict Sunni form known as the way of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) or Wahhabism.The law is mostly unwritten, leaving judges with significant discretionary power which they usually exercise in favor of tribal traditions.Saudi Arabia Table of Contents Education has been a primary goal of government in Najd since the late eighteenth century, when the Wahhabi movement encouraged the spread of Islamic education for all Muslim believers.Because the purpose of Islamic education was to ensure that the believer would understand God's laws and live his or her life in accordance with them, classes for reading and memorizing the Quran along with selections from the hadith were sponsored in towns and villages throughout the peninsula.